The 6th Stage of the Dinka Kingdom
By: Kim Deng, Bilpam, South Sudan
Kimdoms come in all reigns, but RSS [the Dinka Kingdom) is differ from all since it reigns through autocracy rule. The Dinka empire tribalist nature has been confirmed since its inception in 1983. Gross human rights violations were committed by late King, Garang’s forces against a number of ethnic groups in South Sudan, which included massacres. In early 1980s, Garang’s SPLA forces conducted massacre against Gajaak sub-clan of Eastern Jikany Nuer simply because they were believed to side with Samuel Gai Tut’s group of Anya-Nya II. Many lives were lost especially women and children while destroyed almost all the villages along the Baro/Sobat River completely. Some people may wonder why Col. Gatluak Gai got killed while in the middle of peace processes to re-join the rising-Kingdom. Col. Gatluak’s death is not a big surprise to those who know the motive behind this Kingdom. The Dinka Empire has been using the SPLM party and SPLA as tools to pursue interest(s) of one ethnic group (the Dinka) at the expenses of others in the South.
1st stage, the rising-Kingdom sharpened its edges since day one when it hijacked the movement from its founders (separatists), eliminated separatists and imposed its “New Sudan,” vision on South Sudanese in 1983. And its first King, Garang declared that, “the principle objective of the SPLA/M must not be separation, but united secular socialist/New Sudan.” He went further and mentioned on many occasions that, “it must be reiterated that the principle objective of the SPLA/M is not separation for the South. The South is an integral and inseparable part of the Sudan.” Garang declared, “We are not secessionists. And if anybody wants to separate even in the north, we will fight him because the Sudan must be one.” Was it not the same separation the separatists he (Garang) eliminated were fighting for that the rising-Kingdom shamelessly claims to take its credit? Garang himself gave order to his junior, Kerubino Kwanyin Bol to reject the burial of separatists’ leader, Samuel Gai Tut after they killed him, instead to have his “corpse given eighty lashes daily until it decomposed.” This act alone indicated that, the rising Kingdom hatred towards leaders who appear to be from Nuer community is beyond imagination.
2nd stage, the rising-Kingdom imposed its Flag on South Sudanese against their will to choose any flage of their choice regardless of being used as one party (SPLM) flag since 1983. Flag is used by country for a few reasons beyond just having something fly in the air. A country will spend many hours and a lot of money on their flag design because a Flag is a country’s way of portraying itself to rest of the world. Flag can be portraits of a country’s history past, and both Kings (Garang & Salva) know very well that our struggle did not started just yesterday (1983), but way back during colonial era. The Flag is not only a national symbol, but a cultural icon. Instead, King Salva imposed SPLM party Flag on his empire (South Sudan) to pursue interest of one ethnic group, the Dinka. There is no any country in the world which can use party flag as national flag at the same time, but only the Dinka Kingdom.
3rd stage, King Salva, a man who derived his right to power not from the choice of people, but from his illegitimate and favorable constitution after imposed it on south Sudanese. Power is not lay in the hand of elected officials by citizens, but King Salva Kiir himself. He (King Salva) supervised a team he appointed to draft what he calls Transitional-Constitution on his favor, and sealed the document, deleted any democratic mechanism that may pose a threat to his throne. After the end of what they call interim period in six years, King Salva again appointed a permanent members who are tasked with writing permanent National Constitution (Law of the land). The participation of other political parties and civil society was rejected; perhaps they may propose the term limits, which mean the Constitution of South Sudan was not inclusive and not done by consensus. This one-sided Constitution is less democratic than that in the North. Power of law (Constitution) and command, was fully concentrated in the inner circle of throne. The struggle of the orders and/or the minimization of King Salva’s power became a nightmare to the mass in the region. The supreme law of the land leaves all the powers in the hands of one man, the King. Http://www.sudantribune.com/The-color-of-ethnic-domination-in,41947
4th stage, printed out banknotes bearing the image of its first King on all currency notes range from coins and beyond without public consultation let alone other political parties participations within the GoSS. King Salva Kiir himself appointed a committee to come up with national seal. Salva’s team rejected several artistic contributions and not done any revision before the final seal was adopted. These features are not meant to graphically represent the tenets of the new nation, but the Dinka interest. Which country on earth where you can find Currency without dates on if not only from Dinka Empire? What make Garang qualify to be recognized as the “founder father of the Nation,” as shamelessly claim by his disciples? Who on his/her right mind in the South doesn’t know that Garang was for so called “New Sudan?” Garang himself knew that, he was not a separatist, that’s why he declared from his underground rally, “the first bullet must be fired against the separatists” in 1983, but his subordinates are shamelessly promoting him to be the only “founder father of the Nation and the hero of independence of South Sudan.” Garang knew that, his successor, Mr. Salva Kiir or whoever may be within his own ethnic group must complete the mission of the empire.
5th stage, eliminating of leaders who appear to be from Nuer community, Lt. Col. Samuel Gai Tut, William Abdullah Chuol Deng were among the first group who were killed in 1980s followed by unknown numbers of those Nuer officers and soldiers killed in cold-blood during 1991 split. The rising-empire (Dinka Kingdom) did not stop there, but went further and arrested (Maj. Gen. Gabriel Tanginge, Maj. Gen. Mabor Dhoal and Maj Gen. Gatwech Jock) after the fail of its assassination attempt where many soldiers from Tanginye’s side were eliminated and sent those captured alive to Concentration Camp call Mapel in Western Bahr el Ghazal State. While silenced other key subordinates within Dinka Empire who appear to be from Nuer including the laughing machine, Dr. Riek Machar who have been facing humiliation after humiliations let alone embarrassed himself openly before Nyandeng Garang without shame. Who is Nyandeng and her Dinka Bor in particular or Dinka community in general in the eyes of Nuer Community? Dr. Riek was not stupid enough to apology on behalf of Nuer community rather than himself.
6th stage, the last stage of the Dinka Kingdom is on process to eliminate both English and Arabic languages once at a time. In less than five months, Emperor Salva Kiir declared that Arabic will not be used to teach other subjects with, but use as one subject instead. The languages of the rising-Kingdom just for now are English and Arabic, but after the empire completed all five stages, it will impose its language, the Dinka language on South Sudanese and become an official language in the whole Kingdom (RSS). Thereafter, under his rule when the empire reached its greatest extent, Emperor Salva will be remembered in the history of Dinka Kingdom as a great conqueror.
Under his rule, he has been working hard to make sure the empire reach its last stage. Some people may argue that, it will never happen forgetting that, the rising-empire already crossed four stages so far and there was no outside force that stopped it. Col. Gatluak’s death, assassination of officers who appear to be from Nuer ethnic group across the Dinka Empire, arresting of Gabriel Tanginye and his two juniors while sending his troops to Concentration Camp of Mapel should not come as a surprise because it is a continuation of Dinka Kingdom of subjugation and assassination by terror.
It is noteworthy mentioned that, whenever there is Presidential Decree regarding the civilian disarmament it always starts with Nuer community. When the first disarmament was carried out in 2006, it targeted Nuer community only which left them vulnerable to threat from armed neighbors with whom they have long-running feuds. As a result, many lives were lost from both sides. The Nuer especially the Lou Nuer who border Murle and Dinka of Jonglei perceived the disarmament to be a politically-motivated crackdown, objected that they need weapons to protect their cattle from un-disarmed communities. Again, the same King who refused to disarm the Murle, Dinka along with Nuer simultaneously in 2006 ordered the second disarmament operation to take place on March 1st, 2012 against Nuer community. It has been the policy of this empire to use Nuers within that Kingdom against Nuer community. It was the son of the area, Lt. Gen. Bol Koang who commanded the first disarmament on behalf of Dinka Kingdom against his own community. He was replaced with Lt. Gen. Kuol Deng Kuol after refusing to lead the so called “disarmament campaign” in Jonglei State for the second time.
It is importance to emphasize that the rising-empire appeared in form of SPLA/M. There was/is no and there will never be any mean the Dinka community can come up alone and challenge the Nuer community in any form. It is evident that Nuer military domination of the Dinka grounded in their capacity to field a numerical superior fighting force. Nuer occupation towards other Jurs (Jaang, Teet, Bar, Chai…) is demonstrated that there is no any single ethnic group in East Africa let alone South Sudan that can face Nuer in war. Latjor, one of the Nuer warriors’ leaders in 1800s declared, “When waging a war, it is not right that matter, but victory.”
The Nuer (the only threat to Dinka Kingdom in the South) patience for their unquestionable love to the mother land (South Sudan) gave Dinka all the opportunity they needed to expand their power in the South. The more wealth and powerful the Dinka become, the more able they are to further expand their empire. Such, we have seen that the Dinka Kingdom has been using the SPLA not only to eliminate Nuer leaders, but also to destroy/reverse Nuer History [Nuer Conquest/Expansion-Nuer resistance against colonial rule.] By 2016, the non-Dinka tribes across Dinka Kingdom especially the Nuer who never surrender to any colonial or Kingship will be subdue to the maximum.
In greater Equatoria, almost all the communities were/are completely alienated by the action of SPLA soldiers, and have seen the rising-Kingdom, SPLA “an army of occupation” to impose the Dinka hegemony at any time.
When Nuer value is not longer adequate to hold the community together instead of self-interests, the community faces big challenges. In other words, putting nationalism above Nuer interest, Nuer interest faces the gravest crisis it has never encountered since 1800s. Neither condemnation nor blaming will change the course the rising-empire took. Which means, the rising-Kingdom must not be deterred by words; rather, it must be engaged with strategies follow by actions.
Kim Deng is a military Historian, SSAF officer from Bilpam, South Sudan and can be reached at email@example.com
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